kashrut


Glossary of Kosher Terms

Batul
Batul - to nullify. Batul refers to a situation when a small amount of one food is accidentally mixed into a larger amount of a different food. When the ratio is one part to 60 parts or less, the smaller ingredient is generally considered to be null and void.

Bishul Yisroel
Bishul Yisroel refers to the preparation of certain foods for which it is necessary for the Mashgiach to light the fire.

Chodosh
Chodosh, literally, new, refers to the grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye, and spelt) that has not taken root before Passover. It is called "new grain." Its consumption may be restricted until the following Passover.

Cholov Yisroel
Cholov Yisroel refers to all dairy productions, including cheese and non-fat dry milk powder, which have been under constant Rabbinical supervision.

Fleishig
Fleishig - meat, denotes meat and poultry products, as well as dishes and utensils used in their preparation.

Glatt Kosher
Glatt is the Yiddish word meaning smooth, and refers to beef from kosher slaughtered animals whose lungs are free of adhesions. Kosher consumers who are very stringent in accepting only high standards of kosher, demand that all meat products be "glatt." The term is often mistakenly used to differentiate food items which have higher standards of kashruth from those which have a more relaxed level of kosher certification.

Halacha
Halacha, literally, the path that one walks. It refers to Jewish Law, the complete body of rules and practices that Jews are bound to follow, including biblical commandments, directives of the Rabbis, and binding customs.

Hashgacha
Hashgacha, literally, supervision, generally refers to kosher supervision.

Hechsher
Hechsher refers to the certification of a kosher product or ingredient, given by a Rabbi or a kosher supervisory agency.

Kasher
Kasher - to make kosher, usually applied to the salting and soaking procedures used in the production of kosher meat and poultry. The term is also used to describe the kosherization procedure of a non-kosher facility or utensil, so that it may be used in the preparation of kosher food.

Kashruth
Kashruth - the state of being kosher.

Keilim
Keilim - vessels or utensils.

Kli Rishon, Kli Sheni, Kli Shlishi
Kli rishon, literally the first utensil, refers to a utensil that is used for cooking, baking or roasting food or liquid, and contains that hot food or liquid. When hot food or liquid is transferred from the kli rishon into a second utensil, this utensil is called a kli sheni. A kli shlishi is the third utensil into which hot food or liquid is transferred.

Kosher
Kosher is the Hebrew word meaning fit or proper, designating foods whose ingredients and manufacturing procedures comply with Jewish dietary laws.

Kosherization
Kosherization - the process of changing the status of equipment which had been used with non-kosher ingredients or products, to use with kosher ingredients or products.

Mashgiach
Mashgiach - one who is trained to supervise kosher food production.

Mehadrin
Mehadrin refers to the most stringent level of kosher supervision.

Mikvah
Mikvah, literally, gathering, refers to a structure, a ritualarium, in which water is gathered for purposes of immersion.

Milchig
Milchig - dairy, refers to dairy products as well as dishes, utensils, and equipment used in their preparation.

Mevushal
Mevushal refers to wine which has been cooked.

Orla
Orla refers to the Torah commandment to wait for three years before partaking of any fruit from fruit-bearing trees. The forbidden fruit of this period is known as orla.

Pareve
Pareve - neutral, indicates a product which contains no derivatives of poultry, meat, or dairy ingredients and can therefore be eaten with either a meat, poultry or dairy meal. Pareve items include all fruits, vegetables, legumes, grains, eggs, kosher fish, etc.

Pas Yisroel
Pas Yisroel refers to baked goods prepared in ovens which are turned on by the mashgiach.

Shechita
Shechita - the Torah prescribed manner of slaughtering an animal or fowl for consumption.

Shochet
Shochet - one who is specially trained to slaughter kosher meat and poultry according to the Jewish tradition.

Shmitta
Shmitta refers to the agricultural cycle observed in Israel, in which every seventh year the land lies fallow.

Tevilas Keilim
Tevilas Keilim, meaning dipping of utensils, refers to the immersion of vessels, utensils, or dishes in a ritualarium (mikvah) before their first use.

Tovel
To dip or immerse in a ritualarium (mikvah).

Traiboring
Traiboring refers to the process of removing forbidden fats and veins from meat in order to be prepared for the next stage of kashering, namely, the salting process.

Treifah
Treifah refers to food that is not kosher. The term is generally used to refer to all foods, vessels, and utensils that are not kosher. Literally, it means an animal whose flesh was torn or ripped.

Yoshon
Yoshon, literally, old, refers to the grain that has taken root before Pesach, even if it is harvested after Pesach. It is called "old grain." It is permitted to be eaten without restriction. When a product is yoshon, it means that yoshon grains, including wheat, barley, oats, rye, spelt, were used in its preparation.